According to the census in 2007, the total population of Mekong Delta is about 17 millions people with diverse ethnics and culture. However, three ethnics of Viet people, Cham people and Hoa people are in the majority of Mekong Delta's population.
Viet people are the major ethnic in Mekong Delta with the population of more than 16 millions. Viet people have long history of inhabitant on this land. In the early of 17th century, people from the North started transmigrating and farming in this land.
Mekong Delta is concentration of large population of Khmer community in Vietnam. According to the census in 1999, the population of Khmer is over one million people, making up 6.4 % the population of the whole Mekong Delta.
Cham people have longest history of settling and inhabiting on Mekong River. The population of the Cham in Mekong Delta is about 12,500 people living mainly in the upper basin of Hau River.
In 17th century, a large population of Chinese people in China's south coastline migrated into the southern part Vietnam. Thanks to the allowance of Nguyen Dynasty, these people started settling in Mekong Delta.